700,000 lines of code, 20 years, and one developer: How Dwarf Fortress is built

[Ed. note: While we take some time to rest up over the holidays and prepare for next year, we are re-publishing our top ten posts for the year. This is our number one post of 2021! Thanks for reading and we’ll see you in the new year. ]

Dwarf Fortress is a kind of oddball ardour tasks that’s damaged into Web consciousness. It’s a free sport the place you play both an adventurer or a fortress filled with dwarves in a randomly generated fantasy world. The simulation runs deep, with new video games creating a number of civilizations with histories, mythologies, and artifacts. 

It has turn out to be infamous, and rightly so. Particular person dwarves have emotional states, favourite gems, and grudges. And all of it takes place in an ASCII interface that appears imposing to newbies, however feels just like the textual content crawl in The Matrix: craftsdwarf, river, legendary megabeast. 

The complete sport is product of 1 developer, Tarn Adams, aka Toady One, who has been engaged on Dwarf Fortress since 2002. For the primary 4 years it was an element time challenge, however since 2006 it’s been full time. He writes all of the code himself, though his brother helps out with design and creates tales based mostly on the sport. Up till now, he’s relied on donations to maintain him going, however he’s presently engaged on a model with pixel graphics and a revamped UI that can be accessible for buy on Steam. 

I reached out to Tarn Adams to see how he’s managed a single, rising codebase over 15+ years, the perils of pathing, and debugging lifeless cats. Our dialog under has been edited for readability. If you would like extra, we additionally spoke with Tarn on the podcast.


Q: What programming languages and different applied sciences do you employ? Mainly, what’s your stack? Has that modified over the 15-20 years you’ve been doing this?

A: DF is a few mixture of C and C++, not in some type of customary obeying method, however type of a multitude that’s accreted over time. I’ve been utilizing Microsoft Visible Studio since MSVC 6, although now I’m on some model of Visible Studio Group. 

I exploit OpenGL and SDL to deal with the engine issues. We went with these as a result of it was simpler to port them to OSX and Linux, although I nonetheless wasn’t in a position to try this myself in fact. I’m undecided if I’d use one thing like Unity or Unreal now if I had the selection since I don’t know use both of them. However dealing with your individual engine can be an actual ache, particularly now that I’m doing one thing past textual content graphics. I exploit FMOD for sound. 

All of this has been fixed over the course of the challenge, besides that SDL received launched just a few years in so we might do the ports. On the mechanical aspect of the sport, I don’t use lots of exterior libraries, however I’ve occasional picked up some random quantity gen stuff—I put in a Mersenne Twister an extended whereas in the past, and most just lately I adopted SplitMix64, which was featured in a chat on the final Roguelike Celebration.

Q: What are the challenges in growing a single challenge for thus lengthy? Do you suppose that is simpler to do by your self? That’s, since you wrote each line, is it simpler to keep up and alter?

A: It’s simple to overlook stuff! Looking for ‘;’, which is a unfastened methodology however shut sufficient, we’re as much as 711,000 strains, so it’s simply not doable to maintain all of it in my head now. I attempt to identify my variables and objects persistently and memorably, and I depart sufficient comments round to remind myself of what’s occurring after I arrive at a spot of code. Typically it takes a number of searches to search out the precise thread I’m making an attempt to tug on after I go and revisit some piece of the sport I haven’t touched for a decade, which occurs fairly a bit. I’d say most modifications are targeted solely on sure components of the sport, so there’s type of an energetic molten core that I’ve a a lot better working data of. There are just a few actually crusty bits that I haven’t checked out since earlier than the primary launch in 2006.

Relating to the relative ease of doing issues on my own, definitely for me, who has no expertise engaged on a big multi-person challenge, that is the way in which to go! Individuals clearly get good at doing it the opposite method, for instance over within the AAA video games context, and clearly a number of engineers are wanted over there to get issues achieved on time. I’d be hesitant to say I can go in and alter stuff sooner than they will, essentially, since I haven’t labored in that context earlier than, nevertheless it’s true that I don’t have any team-oriented or bureaucratic hurdles to leap by way of after I wish to make an alteration. I can simply go do it. However I additionally must do it alone.

Q: What’s the largest refactor/change that you simply needed to make?

A: There have been some refactors which have lasted for months, redoing sure knowledge buildings and so forth, although I’m undecided something is ever a refactor strictly right here since there’s at all times alternatives to push the mechanics ahead concurrently and it is smart to take action when the code data is contemporary. 

Including the Z coordinate to make the sport mechanically 3D (whereas nonetheless being textual content) was one other one, and actually essentially the most mind-numbing factor I’ve most likely ever achieved. Simply weeks and weeks and weeks of taking logic and performance calls that relied on X and Y and seeing how a Z suits in there.

Making the merchandise system polymorphic was finally a mistake, however that was a giant one. 

Q: Why was this was a mistake?

A: Whenever you declare a category that’s a type of merchandise, it locks you into that construction far more tightly than in the event you simply have member components. It’s good to have the ability to use digital capabilities and that type of factor, however the tradeoffs are simply an excessive amount of. I began utilizing a “software” merchandise within the hierarchy, which began to get varied performance, and might now help something from a stepladder to a beehive to a mortar (and pestle, individually, ha ha), and it simply feels extra versatile, and I want each crafted merchandise within the sport had been below that umbrella. 

We do lots of procedural era, and if we needed to, say, generate an merchandise that acts partially like one factor and partially like one other, it’s simply method more durable to try this when you find yourself locked down in a category hierarchy. Including issues like diamond dependencies and all that simply find yourself tying you in knots when there are cleaner methods to do it. If completely different parts can simply be turned on and off, it’s simpler, and permits you to do extra. 

I feel some sport builders seek advice from this as an entity part system, although it’s my understanding that harder-core optimizer folks consider that as one thing else the place you’re truly breaking issues down by particular person fields. Utilizing a single object with completely different allotted subobjects is sort of definitely worse for cache misses, which is an entire different factor, however the advantages in group, flexibility, and extensibility simply can’t be ignored, and the completely different subfields of the software merchandise aren’t used so typically that it turns into an optimization situation.

Q: Did you run into any points transferring from 32 bit to 64 bit? That seems like a kind of issues that was big on the time however has turn out to be fairly accepted.

A: Under no circumstances! I’m struggling to think about a single situation. Happily for us, we already had our byte sizes below management fairly effectively, because it comes up saving and loading the worlds; the format wanted to be nailed down again after we set that up, particularly as a result of we’ve needed to cope with endian stuff between OSes and all that. And we don’t do any gnarly pointer operations or different stuff which may have gotten us in bother. It simply ended up being actually good code for 64 bit conversion because of our different practices, totally by chance. The primary situation was simply getting the time collectively to make the change, after which it didn’t find yourself taking almost so long as I assumed it could.

Q: I’ve seen different video games much like DF die on their pathfinding algorithms.What do you employ and the way do you retain it environment friendly?

A: Yeah, the bottom algorithm is simply a part of it. We use A*, which is quick in fact, nevertheless it’s not ok by itself. We will’t reap the benefits of a number of the improvements on that (e.g. jump point) since our map modifications a lot. Usually, folks have used approaches that add varied bigger buildings on high of the map to chop corners, and due to the altering map, these simply take too lengthy to keep up, or are in any other case a problem. So our strategy has been to simply hold observe of linked parts reachable by strolling. These are fairly simple to replace even when the map modifications rapidly, although it does contain some flood-filling. As an example, if water cuts the fortress in half, it must flood out from one aspect and replace an entire half of the fortress to a brand new index, however as soon as that’s achieved, it’s good, typically. Then that permits us to chop virtually all failed A* calls from the sport—our brokers simply want to question part numbers, and if the part numbers are the identical, they know the decision will succeed.

It’s quick to keep up, however the draw back is that the part indices are maintained for strolling solely. Which means that flying creatures, for example, don’t have world pathfinding intelligence that’s any completely different from a walker. In fight and some different conditions, we use short-range flood fills with their precise logic to present them some benefits although. However it’s not splendid for them.

I’m undecided we’ll try different buildings right here to make it work any higher. For our map sizes, they’ve all failed, together with some exterior makes an attempt. After all, it is likely to be doable with a extremely concerted effort, and I’ve seen different video games which have managed, for example, some rectangular overlays and so forth that appear promising, however I’m undecided how unstable or massive their maps had been. 

The simplest thought would simply be one thing like including a brand new index for fliers, however that’s a big reminiscence and velocity hit, since we’d want to keep up two indices directly, and one is dangerous sufficient. Extra particular overlays can observe their pathing properties (and then you definitely path by way of the overlays as an alternative of the tiles), however they’re laborious and gradual to keep up because the map modifications. There are numerous different concepts floating round, like monitoring stairs, or performing some restricted path caching, and there are most likely some good points to be made there. We’re definitely on the fringe of what we are able to presently help by way of brokers and map complexity, so one thing’ll have to present if we wish to get extra out of it.

Q: On that word, you’re simulating lots of issues —how do you handle so many so many actors asynchronously (or do you)?

A: If we’re speaking about asynchronous as in multithreading, then no, we don’t do any of that, other than the graphical show itself. There’s lots of promise right here, even with microthreading, which the neighborhood has helped me out with, however I haven’t had time to dive into. I don’t have any expertise and it’s a bug-prone factor.

Q: Have you ever tried different tasks/applied sciences alongside DF?

A: Positive! The aspect challenge folder that’s migrated between computer systems for the final ten years or so has about 90 tasks in it. A few of them lasted for days, some for a number of years. They’re principally different video games, virtually at all times in different genres, however there are additionally just a few DF helper tasks, like the parable generator prototype. Nothing near seeing the sunshine of day, nevertheless it’s enjoyable to mess around.

Q: Along with your ~90 aspect tasks, have you ever explored every other programming languages? If that’s the case, any favorites?

A: Ha ha, nope! I’m extra of a noodler over on the design aspect, reasonably than with the tech. I’m positive some issues would actually velocity up the conclusion of my designs although, so I ought to most likely at the least study some scripting and mess around with threading extra. Individuals have even been sort sufficient to provide some libraries and issues to assist on the market, nevertheless it’s simply troublesome to dam aspect challenge day out for tech studying when my aspect challenge time is for enjoyable.

Q: You will have essentially the most fascinating launch notes. What’s your favourite bug and what induced it?

A: It’s most likely boring for me to say, however I simply can’t beat the drunken cat bug. There’ve been just a few movies made about it by this level. That was the one the place the cats had been exhibiting up lifeless everywhere in the tavern flooring, and it turned out they had been ingesting spilled alcohol once they cleaned their paws. One quantity was off within the ingest-while-cleaning code, and it despatched them by way of all of the signs of alcohol poisoning (which we added after we spruced up venomous creatures.)

If you wish to strive Dwarf Fortress for your self, you possibly can download it from their website.

Tags: dwarf fortress, solo developer, video games

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